Prevalence of Adhesion Genes fnbA & fnbB of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Dental Patients Attending Dentistry Department of Tehsil Headquarter Hospital Pasrur, Pakistan

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Muhammad Danish Mehmood

  •   Huma Anwar Ul-Haq

  •   Khushbu Farva

  •   Zuhaib Farooq

  •   Gul Muhammad Shaikh

  •   Muhammad Usman Ghani

  •   Verda Naeem

Abstract

Introduction: The present study was intended to isolate, characterize and investigate the prevalence of virulence genes encoding fibronectin (fnbA and fnbB) adhesive molecules of S. aureus from dental patients attending outpatient department of THQ Hospital Pasur.


Methodology: A total of 100 oral samples were collected from dental patients, pure cultures was segregated and identified through conventional microbiological methods to evaluate the prevalence of S. aureus. Isolates were further characterized by using specific primers for genotype fnbA and fnbB.


Results: Results of the study declared that 68 samples were positive (68%) for staphylococcus aureus on the basis of growth on selective media and appearance of typical colonies supported by gram staining. These gram positive staphylococci were positive (86.7%) in coagulase and catalase testing. The results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that 47 (69.1%) and 23 (33.8%) isolates showed amplification with type specific primer 23Sr RNA and NUC gene respectively. Furthermore, fnbA and fnbB type specific genes of S. aureus did not show any amplification in PCR reaction.


Conclusion: Irrespectively the data in the present study showed the prevalence of S. aureus is significantly high in males and of age group of 20-40 years but no positive result was found for prevalence of fnbA and fnbB genes. All the S. aureus isolates were highly sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid and clindamycin.


Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, fnbA, fnbB, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

References

MJ Wilson, WG Wade. Application of molecular ecology in the characterization of uncultured microorganisms associated with human disease. Rev Med Microbiol. Vol 8, pp. 91-101,1997.

TW MacFarlance, SJ Helnarska. The microbiology of angular cheilitis. Br Dent J. Vol 140, pp. 403-406,1976.

AY Kaufman, EF Henig. The microbiologic approach in endodontics. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. Vol 42, pp. 810-816,1976.

TP Wyman, WE Dowden, K Langeland. Staphylococcus aureus isolation from a clinically not exposed root canal. J Endodont. Vol 4, pp. 122-128,1987.

GF Koorbusch, P Fotos, KT Goll. Retrospective assessment of osteomyelitis, Etiology, demographics and management in 35 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathology. Vol 74, pp. 149-154,1992.

MH Goldberg, Infection of the salivary gland. In: Topazian RG, Goldberg MH (eds) Management of infections of the oral and maxillofacial region. Pheladelpheia, WB Saunders. pp. 293-311,1981.

J Bagg, MP Sweeney, K Harvey-wood, A Wiggings. possible role of staphylococcus aureus in several oral mucositis among elderly dehydrated patients. Microb Ecol Health Dis. Vol 8, pp. 51-56,1995.

Y Miyake, M Iwai, M Sugai, K Miura, H Suginaka, N Nagasaka. Incidence and characterization of staphylococcus aureus from the tongues of children. J. Dent Res. Vol 70: pp. 1045-1047,1991.

J Jobbins, J Bagg, K Parsons, I Finlay, M Addy, RG Newcombe. Oral carriage of yeasts, coliforms and staphylococci in patients with advanced malignant disease. J Oral Pathol Med. Vol 21, pp. 305-308,1992.

JJ Jacobson, B Patel, G Asher, JO Wooliscroft, D Schaberg. Oral staphylococcus in older subjects with rhematoids arthritis. J. AM. Geriat Sco. Vol 45, pp. 590-593,1997.

MS Jackson, J Bagg, H Kennedy, J Michie. Staphylococci in the oral flora of healthy children and those receiving treatment for malignant disease. Microb Eco Health Dis. Vol 12, pp. 60-64,2000.

WE Klos and TL Bannerman. Update on clinical significance of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Clinical microbiology Reviews. Vol 79, Issue 1, pp. 117-140,1994.

KB Crossley and GL Archer. The staphylococci in human disease, Churchill Livingstone, 1997. pp. 682

J Kluytmans, A Van Belkum and H Verbrugh. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology, underlying mechanism and associated risks. Clinical Microbiology Reviews.1997; Vol 10, Issue 3, pp. 505-520,1997.

L Finelli, A Fiore, R Dhara, L Brammer, DK Shay, L Kamimoto, A Fry, J Hageman, R Gorwitz, J Bresee, T Uyeki. Influenza associated pediatric mortality in the united states: increase of Staphylococcus aureus coinfection. Pediatrics. Vol 122, pp. 805-811,2008.

SA Madhi, P Adrian, L Kuwanda, C Cutland, WC Albrich, KP Klugman. Long term effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae and associated interactions with staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenza colonization in HIV infected and HIV uninfected children. J. Infe. Dis. Vol 196, pp. 1662-1666,2007.

BS Gan, J Kim, G Reid, P Cadieux, JC Howard. Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 inhibits Staphylococcus aureus infection of surgical implants in rats. J. Inect. Dis. Vol 185, pp. 1369-1372,2002.

J Kluytmans, A Van Belkum, H Verbrugh. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology, underlying mechanism and associated risks. Clin Micro Rev. Vol 10, pp. 505-520,1997.

R Wenzel, T Pearl. The significance of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and the incidence of postoperative wound infection. J Hosp Infect. Vol 31, pp. 13-24,1995.

K Toshkova, C Annemculler, C Lammler. The significance of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus as risk factor for human skin infection. FEMS Microb. Lett. Vol 202, pp. 17-24,2001.

AJ Smith, MS Jackson and J Bagg. Ecology of staphylococcal species in the oral activity. J. Med. Micro. Vol 50, pp. 940-946,2001.

Kish, Leslie. Survey Sampling. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 1965.

Bergey, G John, Holt, R Noel, Krieg, HA Peter, Sneath. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,1994.

JG Holt, NR Krieg, PHA Sneath, JT Staley, ST Williams. Bergeys manual of determinative bacteriology edited by William R Henayl, (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, New York) 2000, pp. 296

AW Bauer, WM Kirby, JC Sherris, M Turck. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing by a Standardized Single Disk Method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. Vol 45, pp. 493-496,1966.

BJ Howard and WE Kloos. Staphylococci, in: BJ Howard, J Klass, J RS, AS Weissfeld and RC Tilton (Eds). Clinical and pathogenic Microbiology, Mosby, Washington, pp. 231-234,1987.

GY Liu, A Essex, JT Buchanan, V Datta, HM Hoffman, JF Bastian, J Fierer and V Nizet. Staphylococcus aureus golden pigment impairs neutrophil killing and promotes virulence through its antioxidant activity. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Vol 202, Issue 2, pp. 209-215,2005.

EWAS Koneman, WM Janda, PC Schreckenberger, WC Winn, et al; The gram positive cocci: Staphylococci and related organisms. In color Atlas and textbook of diagnostic Microbiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott- RavenKoneman EW. Vol 5, pp. 55-576,1977.

D Nashev, K Toshkova, S Isrina, O Salasia, AH Abdulwahed. Distribution of virulence genes of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from stable nasal carries. FEMS Microbiology Letters. Vol 233, pp. 45-52,2004.

E Mongdin, O Bajolet, J Cutrona, N Bonnet, F Dupuit, E Puchelle and S DeBemtzmann. Fibronectin-binding protein of Staphylococcus aureus are involved in adherence to human airway epithelium. Infect. Immun. Vol 70, pp. 620-630,2002.

S Peacock, C Moore, A Justice, M Kantazanou, L Story, K Mackie, G Neil and N Day. Virulent combinations of adhesion and toxin genes in natural populations of Staphylococcus aureus. Infect. Immun. Vol 70, pp. 4987-4996,2002.

BN Doebbeling. Nasal and hand carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in healthcare workers. J Chemotherapy. Vol VI, Issue 2, pp. 11-17,1994.

W Naverre, O Schneewind. Surface protein of gram positive bacteria and mechanism of their targeting to the cell wall envelop. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. Vol 63, pp. 174-229,1999.

J Flock, G Fromann, K Jonsson, B Guss, C Signas, B Nilsson, G Raucci, M Hook, T Wadstrom, M Lindberg. Cloning and expression of the gene for a fibronectin-binding protein from staphylococcus aureus. EMBO J. Vol 6, pp. 2351-2357,1987.

K Dziewanowska, J Patti, Cc Deobald, K Bayles, W Trumble and G Bonach. Fibronectin binding protein and host cell tyrosin kinase are required for internalization of staphylococcus aureus by epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. Vol 67, pp. 4673-4678,1999.

C Greene, D McDevitt, P Francois, P Vaudaux, D Lew, T Foster. Adhesion properties of mutants of Staphylococcuss aureus defective in fibronectin- binding proteins and studies on the expression of fnb fenes. Microbiol. Vol 17, pp. 1143-1152,1995.

S Peacock, N Day, M Thomas, A Berendt, T Foster. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus exhibit diversity in fnb genes and adhesion to human fibronectin. J Infect. Vol 41, pp. 23-31,2000.

L Switalski, J Patti, W Butcher, A Gristina, P Speziale, M Hook. A collagen receptor on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients with septic arthritis mediates adhesion to cartilage. Mol Microbiol. Vol 7, pp. 99-107,1993.

M Elasri, J Thomas, R Skinner, J Blevins, K Beenken, C Nelson, M Smelterz. Staphylococcus aureus collagen adhesion contributes to the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis. Bone. Vol 30, pp. 275-280,2002.

S Peacock, C Moore, A Justice, M Kantazanou, L Story, K Mackie, G Neil and N Day. Virulent combinations of adhesion and toxin genes in natural populations of Staphylococcus aureus. Infect. Immun. Vol 70, pp. 4987-4996,2002.

A Van Belkum, NH Riewarts Eriksen, M Sijmons, W Van leeuwen, M Van den Bergh, J Kluytmans, F Espersen, H Verbrugh. Coagulase and protein A polymorphisms do not contribute to persistence of nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Microbiol. Vol 46, pp. 222-232,1997.

A Guentsch, M Puklo, PM Preshaw. Neutophils in chronic and aggressive periodontitis in interaction with Porphyromonas gingivalis ans Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. J Periodonatal Res. Vol 44, pp. 368-377,2009.

MM Hanif, T Butt, M Amjad. Pathogens involved and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolates in community acquired common bacterial skin infections presenting in tertiary care hospital. Pak. Arm. Forces Med. J.Vol 3, pp. 289-294, 2006.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Mehmood, M., Ul-Haq, H., Farva, K., Farooq, Z., Shaikh, G., Ghani, M., & Naeem, V. (2020). Prevalence of Adhesion Genes fnbA & fnbB of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Dental Patients Attending Dentistry Department of Tehsil Headquarter Hospital Pasrur, Pakistan. European Journal of Dental and Oral Health, 1(4). https://doi.org/10.24018/ejdent.2020.1.4.6